Human trafficking is difficult to measure, due in part to its hidden nature. While there has been an increase in the number of human trafficking incidents reported by police in recent years, human trafficking remains highly underreported for reasons such as:
- Victims are usually in a physically, socially, or economically vulnerable position, making them unwilling or unable to report to police.
- Traffickers sometimes deliberately implicate victims in humiliating or illegal activities to keep them from reporting; for example, humiliating sexual acts, use of illicit substances and fear of exposure to family members or authorities.
- Physical force or psychological techniques are used to intimidate victims; for example, increasing a victim’s sense of isolation and dependence by removal of forms of identification or threatening of family members.
- Some victims distrust police; for some victims, police in their native countries may have returned them to the traffickers, potentially leading to severe repercussions from the trafficker. Victims with such experiences or beliefs may mistrust Canadian authorities, as well.
- Victims may have language barriers or may be unaware of their legal rights.
Data table for Chart 1
Table summaryThis table displays the results of Data table for Chart 1. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), Number of incidents and Rate per 100,000 population (appearing as column headers).
|Year||Number of incidents||Rate per 100,000 population|
Note: The Criminal Code offences which comprise the category of human trafficking in the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey include: trafficking in persons (CCCs. 279.01); trafficking in persons under 18 (CCCs. 279.011); material benefit (CCCs. 279.02); material benefit from trafficking of persons under 18 years of age (279.02(2)); withholding or destroying documents (CCCs. 279.03); and withholding or destroying documents to facilitate trafficking of persons under 18 years of age (279.03(2)). In addition, an offence in the Immigration and Refugee Protection Actwhich targets international cross-border trafficking (section 118) is included. This analysis is based on aggregate data, and counts are based on the most serious violation in the incident. Rates are calculated on the basis of 100,000 population. Populations are based upon July 1st estimates from Statistics Canada, Demography Division.
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey.
Credit: Statistics Canada